Bronze sponsors

Conversant Intellectual Property Management

Conversant Intellectual Property Management is a world-leading IP management company. With a portfolio of 6,000 patents and applications in over 40 countries, Conversant maximises the value of intellectual property in the areas of semiconductors and communications. The company’s R&D currently focuses on developing and marketing HLNAND™ (HyperLink NAND), a high-performance solution for the mass storage market.

Offering a range of IP management services and partnership models, Conversant counts many of the world's largest technology companies among its licensees. Founded in 1975, Conversant has offices in Ottawa, Ontario; Plano, Texas; and Luxembourg.


Questel is a world leader in IP information, providing the most comprehensive collection of patent databases matched with a wide array of tools and services covering the IP lifecycle. Lifecycle scenarios include patent landscaping and analysis, ensuring IP clearance and freedom to operate, prosecution, patent valuation and licensing.

Questel has been focusing on its core business of IP information since its inception in the early 1970s. Since 2007, Questel has been supported by leading European mid-cap private equity investor Syntegra Capital.

Mintz Levin

Mintz Levin is a law firm with 450 attorneys serving clients worldwide. Applying a cross-disciplinary team approach, we address the rapidly changing legal and regulatory requirements of a wide variety of industries. Our attorneys possess exceptional expertise in leveraging the value of patent portfolios. We create and implement strategic licensing programmes and negotiate them on our clients' behalf, and have a highly successful track record of enforcing their exclusive patent rights through federal district courts and the International Trade Commission.


IPI is a non-profit organisation established by the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Singapore under the Research Innovation and Enterprise 2015 Plan to enhance the innovation capacity of Singapore enterprises. We assist Singapore enterprises to search, gain access and leverage on enabling technology and know-how to develop new or improved products and services through open innovation.

We are connected to a network of global technology partners (eg, universities, research institutes and companies with proven technologies), and have access to technologies in the infocommunications, electronics, precision engineering, material and chemical, medical technology and healthcare, marine and offshore and environment and energy sectors. We facilitate connections between technology providers and technology users, which will lead to win-win technology licensing or business collaboration outcomes between parties.


Created by Gevers in 2008 (from which it became independent in 2012), VALIPAT provides centralised and cost-efficient administrative services for IP attorneys, saving costs and paralegals’ time. A foundation of our success is European patent validations, where we have exceeded 15,000 a year. We now also offer entry into the national or regional phase of Patent Cooperation Treaty applications and the automated free generation of power of attorney forms covering multiple IP rights in more than 200 jurisdictions worldwide. Our user-friendly interface facilitates streamlined and secured processes such as guaranteed quotes and progress follow-up, while quality is assured by our network of top-tier IP firms’ associates.

Ocean Tomo, LLC

Established in 2003, Ocean Tomo, LLC is the Intellectual Capital Merchant Banc™ firm. The company provides financial products and services related to intellectual property, including expert testimony, valuation, strategy, research, ratings, investments, risk management and transactions. Ocean Tomo assists clients – whether corporations, law firms, governments or institutional investors – in realising Intellectual Capital Equity® value.

Subsidiaries include Ocean Tomo Risk Management, Ocean Tomo Asset Management, OTI Data Networks, Patent Marking and Ocean Tomo Capital – publisher of the Ocean Tomo 300® Patent Index. Ocean Tomo is the founder of the Intellectual Property Exchange International and exclusive licensee and distributor of the PatentRatings® System.


Innography provides better answers to questions about intellectual property to help organisations to improve their business results. Innography’s proprietary software suite combines unique correlation and visualisation technologies to enable users to quickly gain valuable insights for managing, extending and exploiting their patent portfolios. Founded in 2007 and based in Austin, Texas, Innography is the world’s premier IP business intelligence provider.


Patsnap Pte Ltd provides professional worldwide patent database analytics, as well as many other IP services. The company aims to enhance research and technology commercialisation processes in organisations. Focused on product development, our staff are skilled at adapting to an ever-changing environment, continuously innovating and creating new breakthroughs.

The company has grown fast and expanded to four different countries with seven regional branches. Patsnap provides four different products: the PatSnap patent search engine, the Zhihuiya Chinese patent search engine, the InnoSnap patent management system and a customised patent system for organisations. It also provides three types of services: patent reports, customised software and IP training. Our customers include legal executives and corporates from the automotive, electronics, biological pharmaceutical industry, chemical and internet industries, among others.


Intellectual property is integral to Microsoft's success. Its patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets enable it to develop innovative software, helping people and businesses throughout the world to realise their full potential. With an annual R&D budget of over US$9 billion, no other software company invests as much in innovation.

Microsoft views intellectual property as a strategic asset that provides significant value to the company and its customers and partners. Microsoft’s portfolio of more than 30,000 issued patents, and more than 38,000 pending worldwide, is consistently rated at the top of the industry by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, OceanTomo and the Patent Board.

Gold sponsors


CPA Global is the world leader in IP management software and IP and legal support services. With offices across Europe, the United States and Asia-Pacific, CPA Global supports many of the world’s best-known corporations and law firms with a range of IP and broader legal services, helping them to manage risk, cost and capacity, and realise greater value for their businesses and IP assets.

CPA Global helps clients to manage valuable IP rights such as patents, designs and trademarks, ensuring that IP portfolios are protected, maintained and regularly reviewed. CPA Global is also a market leader in the outsourced legal services sector, providing high-quality and cost-efficient legal support services through delivery centres in the United States and India.

Founded in Jersey, Channel Islands in 1969, CPA Global today employs some 1,600 people, serving clients’ needs in 200 jurisdictions through its own offices and an extensive agent network.

Philips Intellectual Property & Standards (IP&S)

Philips Intellectual Property & Standards (IP&S) is a leading industrial IP organisation, providing world-class IP solutions to Philips’ businesses to support their growth, competitiveness and profitability. Philips IP&S proactively pursues the creation of new intellectual property in close cooperation with the three operating sectors of Philips - healthcare, consumer lifestyle and lighting - as well as other departments within Philips Group Innovation.

Philips’ IP portfolio consists of around 54,000 patent rights, 39,000 trademarks, 70,000 design rights and 4,400 domain name registrations. Philips filed approximately 1,500 patents in 2012, with a strong focus on growth areas in health and wellbeing. Philips IP&S participates in the setting of standards to create new business opportunities for all three Philips sectors. With 400 employees in 17 offices in 11 countries, Philips IP&S has a strong global presence. Philips IP&S is part of Philips, a diversified health and wellbeing company focused on improving people’s lives through timely and meaningful innovations. Philips employs over 120,000 employees, with sales and services in more than 100 countries worldwide.

Winston & Strawn LLP

Winston & Strawn LLP is an international law firm with more than 900 attorneys in 16 offices across North America, Europe and Asia. Its 200-lawyer IP group was selected for The National Law Journal's inaugural IP Hot List, and the firm became one of only 17 selected for a US national ranking in Intellectual Asset Management magazine's 2012 Patent Litigation 1000 worldwide survey. Also in 2012, two of its IP partners were recognised as Law360 Intellectual Property MVPs. 

Additionally, the patent litigation team has ranked among the top 10 groups in Corporate Counsel's annual survey of the most frequently hired patent litigation practices in each of the last few years. Its IP prowess has also been recognised by Legal 500 and US News Best Law Firms.

Winston litigators have handled cases for companies in the following fields: telecommunications/ networking/internetworking; the Internet; digital media distribution; bio-tech and pharmaceuticals; medical devices; computers and peripherals; semiconductors; data and analytics; software; gaming; retail; financial services; energy; optics; fashion; and automotive.

Winston was recently named a 2013 Go-To Law Firm for intellectual property by clients Cisco Systems, Dell, Motorola Mobility and Verizon, according to an annual survey conducted by ALM Media.

Edwards Wildman

Edwards Wildman is a full-service law firm of 625 attorneys across three continents. Its IP and licensing groups have over 150 lawyers in the United States, United Kingdom, Hong Kong and Japan. Intellectual property has enormous commercial potential and the firm’s team of patent, trademark, licensing, technology and litigation professionals help businesses to realise that potential.

In addition to patent and trademark prosecution, counselling and enforcement, clients turn to the firm for strategic advice and agreements across the complete spectrum of IP commercialisation. This includes the purchase, sale and assignment of IP assets, in-licensing and out-licensing of technology, R&D collaborations and joint ventures. The firm also advises on digital content, brand licensing, media contracts, outsourcing, franchising and software licensing. Skilful deployment of intellectual property can bring in additional revenue, enable financing and increase enterprise on exit. Edwards Wildman is here to help with making the most of IP asset value.

Kenyon & Kenyon LLP

Kenyon & Kenyon LLP has a record of successfully enforcing and defending IP rights for some of the world's best-known corporations. As one of the largest and oldest full-service IP law firms in the United States, we represent a worldwide clientele in all IP-related matters, such as litigation, prosecution, licensing and counselling services for patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, unfair competition, false advertising, antitrust and international trade. Kenyon is regarded as a firm of choice in various IP areas by reputable legal reference guides, which base their rankings on reviews provided by our clients and peers. Such guides include Chambers Global, Chambers USA, Legal 500, Managing Intellectual Property, PLC Which Lawyer? Yearbook and IP Law & Business.

Acacia Research Group LLC

Acacia Research Group LLC is the leading independent patent licensing and monetisation company. Acacia partners with innovators and patent owners in a wide variety of industries to reward them properly for their patented inventions. Acacia works with its patent partners to generate licensing and monetisation programmes, and has licensed many of the leading corporations worldwide.


TechInsights is the preeminent firm for the provision of sophisticated information and advice to technology companies. Our foundation of technical expertise and analysis tools, combined with years of experience on all aspects of the IP / Technology Lifecycle allow us to deliver the highest ROI to the client. Our leadership position is sustained by our commitment to the upmost integrity, and the ongoing investment and acquisition of knowledge and capabilities necessary to meet our clients' evolving needs. If you need assistance in managing your most complex technology or IP challenges, turn to TechInsights for assured results.

Perkins Coie

With more than 800 lawyers in 19 offices across the United States, China and Taiwan, Perkins Coie provides a full array of corporate, commercial litigation and IP services to its clients. The firm’s IP practice includes more than 250 lawyers focused on IP litigation, patent and trademark prosecution, technology licensing, copyrights, trade secret and unfair competition counselling.

A leading technology law firm, Perkins Coie has extensive experience in litigating patent and trademark infringement actions, internet-related disputes and grey-market and anti-counterfeiting claims. Its lawyers work closely with clients to develop comprehensive solutions to the complicated IP issues that companies face at all stages of growth.

Rockstar Consortium

Rockstar Consortium was launched in 2011 as an IP licensing company. Based on Nortel Networks’ groundbreaking innovation engine, Rockstar manages a highly valued patent portfolio relevant to virtually all telecommunications and high-tech services and devices.

Rockstar is deeply committed to advancing innovation worldwide through its patent licensing programme.

Host Sponsors

Lakshmikumaran & Sridharan

Lakshmikumaran & Sridharan (L&S) is full-service law firm with 250 professionals and 32 partners. The firm has eight offices in India and provides advisory and consulting services in tax, intellectual property, corporate and trade remedy laws.

L&S has an established top-tier IP practice in India. The IP team has expertise in all IP laws, including patents, designs, trademarks, copyright and plant variety protection. The team consists of technologists holding advanced degrees in engineering and life sciences, and attorneys who work closely with clients in litigation, preparation, prosecution and opposition, licensing, valuation and IP management.

The team has handled several high-profile patent litigations and provides filing and prosecution services to some of the world’s leading companies. In the areas of copyright and trademark, the firm has handled several infringement litigations. L&S has extensive experience in filing applications under the Plant Variety Protection Act.

Lakshmikumaran Sridharan

Yusarn Audrey

Yusarn Audrey is a boutique IP and corporate commercial law firm based in Singapore that focuses on all aspects of intellectual property, how it can be used as a strategic tool for businesses and transactional support to monetise intellectual property.

At Yusarn Audrey, the corporate and IP lawyers work together with our in-house patent agents and technical specialists to provide a seamless delivery of IP and legal services to our clients. We help our clients to create new possibilities using the intellectual assets they own.

Over the years, the firm has successfully counselled and implemented IP strategies for local and international small and medium enterprises, multinational corporations, universities and government agencies.

Beijing East IP Ltd

Beijing East IP Ltd is a boutique IP law firm founded by Lulin Gao, former commissioner of the State Intellectual Property Office, and a group of experienced and enthusiastic Chinese and international attorneys.

Our attorneys specialise in patent and trademark prosecution, litigation and administrative proceedings. With strong credentials from courts, including the Supreme People’s Court, top universities in China, the United States and Japan, and close ties with Chinese government agencies, we provide our clients with top-quality one-stop IP services across the Greater China region, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau.

Beijing East IP Ltd

TMI Associates

With over 350 professionals, TMI Associates is one of the largest general practice firms in Japan and has a strong IP practice. It offers comprehensive legal services across all types of IP matters – prosecution, litigation transactions and due diligence for all kinds of technology and brands. TMI’s unique organisational structure, comprising a mix of patent and trademark attorneys and attorneys-at-law, enables it to respond in a highly effective and efficient manner to the needs of clients across a wide variety of businesses and technologies from around the globe.

To enable it to support clients’ international transactions actively and to respond to clients' needs more professionally and comprehensively, TMI Associates has established overseas joint legal ventures in various countries worldwide. Since 1998, it has opened offices in a number of Asian locations, including Beijing, Shanghai, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh, Yangon and Singapore, with the aim of providing high-quality legal services in the countries to which its clients have expanded their businesses.

TMI Associates

Media partners

International Law Office

Launched in 1998, the International Law Office (ILO) is the nexus where global corporate counsel engage with the world’s preeminent law firms, and with each other. The ILO brand encompasses a multifaceted online resource for senior international corporate counsel, which provides tailored, qualityassured updates on global legal developments, a database of the world’s major deals and the legal advisers involved, and a comprehensive directory of firms and partners. Recognising its unique relationship with global corporate counsel, ILO is an Online Media Partner to the Association of Corporate Counsel, the International Bar Association, the American Bar Association Section of International Law, the Inter-Pacific Bar Association and the European Company Lawyers Association.

World Trademark Review

World Trademark Review is a bi-monthly, practitioner-led publication which focuses on the issues that matter to trademark professionals the world over. In each issue the experienced editorial team and extensive panel of correspondents provide in-depth coverage of national and regional trends, profile the world’s major trademark offices (including how they function and handle important registration issues), and conduct interviews with leading trademark personalities.


Lexology is a fully customisable daily newsfeed of law firm client alerts, articles and blogs delivered free of charge to the desktops of senior business lawyers worldwide on a daily basis.

Globe Law and Business

Globe Law and Business specialises in producing practical, topical titles for international legal and business professionals.

Established in 2005, we set out to create books that are of a sufficiently high level to be of real use to the experienced professional, yet still accessible and easy to navigate. We are a division of Globe Business Publishing Ltd, based in London, focusing in particular on intellectual property, energy and finance.

We love books. Our hardback titles are carefully produced, with the utmost attention paid to the editorial, design and production processes. We hope that this results in high-quality titles which are easy to read.

Official airline

Singapore Airlines

Singapore Airlines

Official web TV partner


PitchMark brings together creators of intellectual property and their clients. It is a global movement that aims to establish greater trust between those who create ideas, concepts or proposals, and the people they hope to sell them to.

If you are a creator, register your intellectual property and be certified that you were the first to create it. PitchMark allows you to let your clients to get the idea, without taking it. You can report any suspected breaches to PitchMark, and we will be there to assist you in your claim.

If you are a client, become a member to signal to vendors or suppliers that you respect IP rights.

Platinum sponsor

Transpacific IP Group Limited

Transpacific IP is a leading IP management and consulting firm that specialises in acquiring, managing and licensing patent portfolios.

With offices across Asia, Transpacific IP is one of the largest and most well-established IP management and consulting firms in the region. We have over 80 employees, including patent engineers, technical analysts, attorneys and business specialists. Our in-house team is supported by over 100 external consultants and advisers, who are experts in specific technology fields and/or leaders in the business world.

Transpacific IP’s full range of services includes strategic IP services, IP portfolio management, transaction services, patent development services, commercialisation and infrastructure set-up and training. We have also built up domain know-how across a range of technology fields, including consumer electronics, computer software/hardware, wireless communications, semiconductors and biomedical sciences.

With appropriate IP management, a firm’s IP portfolio is a valuable strategic and financial asset. We help our clients to determine what technologies to acquire to give them freedom to operate and to position themselves for future success. In addition to helping to realise the true value of their IP, proper IP management mitigates the significant costs of maintaining IP portfolios. At Transpacific IP, we help our clients to protect and capture the value of their IP in a cost-effective manner. For clients that wish to manage their IP in-house, we help our clients to set up an efficient IP infrastructure or improve existing processes, to enhance their ability to manage and generate greater value from their IP assets.

Tapping on our global network of domain, business and scientific experts, we uncover hidden opportunities and provide strategic guidance and operational support through every step of the IP commercialisation process. Clients can leverage on our global network to reach a larger pool of potential licensing and strategic partners, maximising the benefits of their R&D efforts and IP assets.

Presented by

Intellectual Asset Management

Intellectual Asset Management (IAM) is a unique publication which focuses on the many ways in which intellectual property and intangible assets can be used to create corporate value. In-depth articles, case studies, interviews and surveys, as well as a widely read blog, provide a high-level corporate readership with cutting-edge insights into how intellectual property and other intangibles can be used to create strategic advantage, build shareholder returns, generate bottom-line revenue and gain greater leverage in the financial markets.

IAM was launched in July 2003 and, with its unequalled appeal to the boardroom, has established itself as the only IP publication that is principally read on a regular basis by senior corporate executives. The magazine is topical, timely and continually thought provoking for its subscription-based readership. Editorial quality and integrity are paramount. The quality of the editorial is guaranteed by an in-house team, based in London and Hong Kong, with long-established journalistic track records in the specialist IP and business press, including on titles such as the Wall Street Journal and the Financial Times. In each issue a number of articles are also commissioned from leading figures in the IP business world. Overall support is provided by an editorial board which includes legendary IP monetisation pioneer Marshall Phelps, Philips IP & Standards CEO Ruud Peters and Scott Frank, president of AT&T Intellectual Property.

IAM also publishes a weekly email which has over 14,000 subscribers. It comprises a summary of the magazine’s popular blog and jurisdiction-based international reports from leading law firms. The website hosts a fully searchable archive of all articles and supplements published since 2003, plus an events section and the blog.

Silver sponsors


inovia is the global leader in foreign patent filing, having served more than 1,000 clients. Its global instruction platform, inovia.com, simplifies the Patent Cooperation Treaty national stage entry, direct (Paris Convention) filing and European validation processes.

With headquarters in New York and offices in London, Munich and Sydney, as well as agents covering 120 countries, inovia provides support in all major time zones and IP jurisdictions. inovia's patented technology pioneered online foreign filing and is recognised among the World Intellectual Property Organisation's most notable inventions.

Pluritas LLC

Pluritas LLC is among the most active IP transaction advisers, providing rights holders with expert assistance on patent and brand assessment, and the valuation and commercialisation of IP assets.

Since 2002, the firm has managed and successfully closed more than 100 patent and brand transactions on behalf of clients including Fortune 50 companies, small and medium-sized enterprises, distressed entities and independent inventors. IP sellers, buyers, investors and advisers worldwide rely on Pluritas for detailed patent and brand analysis, market intelligence and monetisation expertise. Pluritas professionals can be found in locations including San Francisco, Boston, Chicago and Houston.

Global IP Law Group

Global IP Law Group has generated over US$7.5 billion for its clients in sales, licensing and litigation of patents, including some of the largest patent transactions in history. Global IP was adviser to Alcatel-Lucent regarding its patent portfolio as partial security for US$2.6 billion secured debt financing and represented Nortel Networks in the US$4.5 billion sale of its patent portfolio.

With offices in the United States, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region, it offers services, insight and global resources to large and small-sized companies, independent inventors and universities. It emphasises a deal-oriented approach, while maintaining a robust litigation option.

Intellectual Ventures

Intellectual Ventures is the global leader in the business of invention and is interested in collaborating on your next big idea. Whether you’re an innovative product company looking to leapfrog a competitor or an inventor looking to monetise your invention, connect with us. We have the portfolio, network and capital you need to license, develop and sell inventions. Together, we can energise the invention economy and help to drive innovation around the world.

Papst Licensing GmbH & Co KG

Papst Licensing GmbH & Co KG was established in 1992 by its founder, Georg Papst. In 1993 the patent licensing firm acquired the entire patent portfolio of Papst-Motoren, the company founded by Georg Papst’s father Hermann Papst, and set out to take active action against patent infringements on the international level. Papst Licensing built up an international network of experts for monetising infringed patents, concluding more than 150 licence agreements with virtually all renowned companies in the IT and electronics industry. Georg Papst’s sons, Constantin and Daniel, followed into the business and today Papst Licensing offers practical support to third parties facing infringements of quality patents, with the aim of securing licences from infringers. Operating investor independently, the Papst family is in its third generation of licensing and advancing innovation. Where no amicable resolution can be obtained, Papst Licensing is determined and experienced in enforcing its rights in court, especially in the United States, the Netherlands and Germany.

Supported by

International IP Strategists Association

The International IP Strategists Association (INTIPSA) is a professional organisation serving the community of IP strategists worldwide. Its members come from a wide variety of disciplines and share a common interest in aligning IP assets with business strategy. INTIPSA aims to raise awareness of the value of IP strategic management; allow professionals to build their careers and networks; enable knowledge sharing and best practice; and promote excellence and professionalism within IP strategy.


Founded in 2012, International IP Commercialisation Council (IIPCC) is a global non-profit, non-partisan social organisation based in Hong Kong.

It brings together representatives from the international IP community to promote the development of an IP commercialisation ecosystem through IP professional development, education and training; IP best practices and standards for SME growth and global collaboration; and IP business ecosystem-building for innovation and commercialisation.

IIPCC is dedicated to developing and promoting standardised best practices and a global ecosystem for IP-based business. Such best practices are pivotal in linking up the world to foster innovations.

LES Singapore

The Licensing Executives Society (LES) (Singapore) is a national society of LES International, the umbrella organisation of associations for licensing executives made up of 32 national and regional societies, representing more than 12,000 individual members in over 90 countries.

LES Singapore seeks to promote and raise industry awareness of the issues relating to licensing of all forms of intellectual property. LES Singapore engages both the government and the community in its efforts to provide training and education in licensing and commercialisation, as well  fostering international collaborations to promote the licensing of intellectual property.

Singapore Corporate Counsel Association

The Singapore Corporate Counsel Association (SCCA) was set up in 2002. It is the pioneer association representing in-house lawyers in Singapore.

The work of the SCCA includes: raising the profile of in-house lawyers in Singapore; providing a platform for representation of the interests of the in-house lawyers' community and their employers, relevant to legislative developments and other issues; fostering a dynamic community of professional corporate counsel; providing opportunities for in-house lawyers to network and share information and resources; and creating and developing continuing education programmes.

The International Chamber of Commerce

The International Chamber of Commerce Commission on Intellectual Property (ICC) promotes efficient IP systems that support international trade, encourage investment in creation and innovation and facilitate sustainable economic development. Working closely with intergovernmental organisations such as the World Intellectual Property Organisation, the ICC provides the business voice on key IP issues facing the international business community.

The ICC Intellectual Property Roadmap: Current and Emerging Issues for Business, a biennial publication, helps to raise awareness of IP policy issues.

The ICC provides a forum where businesses and other organisations can come together to examine current concerns and contribute business insights to international policy making. Our memberships and global business leaders span over 130 countries.

International Trademark Association

The International Trademark Association (INTA) is a not-for-profit membership association of more than 5,900 trademark owners and professionals, from more than 190 countries, dedicated to the support and advancement of trademarks and related intellectual property as elements of fair and effective national and international commerce.

INTA was founded in 1878 by 17 merchants and manufacturers who saw a need for an organization “to protect and promote the rights of trademark owners, to secure useful legislation and to give aid and encouragement to all efforts for the advancement and observance of trademark rights.” After 130 years, INTA continues its mission to represent the trademark community, shape public policy and advance professional knowledge and development.

Singapore Exhibition & Convention Bureau

The Singapore Exhibition and Convention Bureau (SECB) has a mission to champion business travel and business events as key drivers of the tourism sector and enablers of industry growth in Singapore. It aims to establish Singapore as a dynamic business events destination where people, technology and ideas converge to create great value for customers. As the leading government agency for the business events sector in Singapore, the SECB works with stakeholders to create, attract and grow business events, as well as ensuring exceptional experiences in the delivery of these events. The SECB also develops partnerships with international organisations and alliances.